Tuesday, 15 March 2016

Transaction diagnostics

Most DBMS will report transaction conflicts if concurrent transactions attempt to update the same data (since this is the classic "lost update" fault). Certainly it is a necessary condition for transaction serialisation that such attempts are prevented.
There has recently been some discussion in the community about whether transaction conflicts should also be reported when data that has been read in the transaction has been changed before the transaction commits. In combination with the above condition, this is sufficient to ensure transaction serialisation (so-called view serialisability).
For over ten years, Pyrrho has enforced this very strong requirement (it is the only transaction mode it supports) although for practical reasons the full read set of a transaction is not always available, and Pyrrho will report a transaction conflict in all cases of doubt.
From today, Pyrrho provides some additional information in the standard SQL diagnostics area to identify a reason that a transaction conflict has been reported, provisionally using the keyword WITH. Because of Pyrrho's role-based data models, transactions do not necessarily agree on table names etc, and database objects in such messages are usually identified by their numerical identities.

Saturday, 5 March 2016

Threading and PyrrhoLink

The thread-safety issues when database connections are shared among threads have been well-documented for years, and as threading becomes more widespread a number of famous libraries have been affected. While it is good practice to close database connections as soon as possible, an application can have many database connections open, and connections can be shared across threads.

The following considerations are planned for the PyrrhoLink/OSPLink implementations in C# and Python from version 5.4. They provide some protection from unsafe coding, and operations will only block while the connection is busy in another thread.


Many complications involving ADO.NET such as DependentTransactions are irrelevant in Pyrrho because of strong transaction isolation and serialisation.

1.       We need to enforce only one ongoing transaction per connection. The situation is really likely only to arise if the connection is shared between threads, so a call to BeginTransaction should block until the connection is available. If it is the same thread it is probably a programmer mistake (nested or parallel transactions are not supported) and an exception should be raised.

2.       We need to enforce only one open reader per connection. In the single threaded case (or on the same thread), this likely to be a misunderstanding by the programmer (ADO.NET allows only one active reader per connection), and an exception should be raised. Otherwise, the call should block until the connection is available.

3.       We should definitely disallow the sharing of commands between threads because IDbCommand methods can set up the command text, parameters etc and it is easy to see that conflicts could arise. Each IDbCommand should be specific to a given thread, but a connection can have many commands.

4.       When a command is executed, the call should block until the connection is available, as the connection might be busy in another thread.

5.       We should disallow the sharing of readers between threads, because of possible races with Read(), data fetching, and RdrClose(). We will associate each reader with the command’s thread, and cross-thread access should raise an exception.


Similar blocking and safety measures will be added to the Python library OSPLink.

Act() and Versioned objects

At first sight, connection.Act(s) looks atomic and thread-safe, but the changes it makes could interfere with open Readers in the same connection. So its internal use of Command execution should make it comply with the same protocol.

Versioned objects do not use Command, but need to be subject to the same restrictions about the Connection being used. It is okay to use a versioned object in another Connection, but if that connection is busy in another thread, an operation such as Update or Delete will block until the connection is available. Versioned objects can easily be used in client-side cursor simulations.


The REST API is unaffected by all the above because each call is effectively in a new Connection.

Comments from the community are welcome.